Common Wealth

U.S. military spending in 2006 was nearly equal to the military spending of the rest of the world combined.

China is adding the equivalent of 500-megawatt coal-fired plants per week - the total capacity of the UK power grid.
p. 75 Common Wealth

We have reached the beginning of the twenty-first century with a very crowded planet: 6.6 billion people living in an interconnected global economy producing an astounding $60 trillion of output each year.
p. 17 Common Wealth

One day’s Pentagon spending would provide enough funds to ensure antimalarial bed net protection for every sleeping site in Africa for five years.
p. 274 Common Wealth

By adopting a number of practical low-carbon technologies, we can bring the climate change problem under control at modest cost, indeed a far lower cost than the horrendous climate risks we face with business as usual.
p. 103 Common Wealth

Human pressures on the Earth’s ecosystems and climate, unless mitigated substantially, will cause dangerous climate change, massive species extinctions, and the destruction of vital life-support functions.
p. 6 Common Wealth



Common Wealth Club

The Earth Institute Newsletter

Including: Climate Change, Water, Biodiversity

  1. Alley, Richard. “Wally Was Right: Predictive Ability of the North Atlantic ‘Conveyor Belt’ Hypothesis for Abrupt Climate Change.” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 35 (2007): 241–72.
  2. Amstrup, Steven C., Bruce G. Marcot, and David C. Douglas. Forecasting the Rangewide Status of Polar Bears at Selected Times in the 21st Century. Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report, 2007.
  3. Auffhammer, Maximillian, V. Ramanathan, and Jeffrey R.Vincent. “Integrated Model Shows That Atmospheric Brown Clouds and Greenhouse Gases Have Reduced Rice Harvests in India.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Special Feature: Sustainability Science, December 8, 2006.
  4. Barnett, T. P., J. C. Adam, and D. P. Lettenmaier.“Potential Impacts of a Warming Climate on Water Availability in Snow-Dominated Regions.” Nature 438 (November 2005).
  5. Beddington, J. R., et al. “Current Problems in the Management of Marine Fisheries.” Science 316 (June 22, 2007): 1713–16.
  6. Bjorndal, T. and G. Munro, “The Economics of Fisheries Management: A Survey,” in T. Tietenberg and H.
  7. Broecker,Wallace S., M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen. “Evidence for an Abrupt Change in Climate Close to 11, 000 Years Ago.” American Journal of Science 258, no. 429, (June 1960): 429–48.
  8. Brohan P., J. J. Kennedy, I. Harris et al. “Uncertainty Estimates in Regional and Global
    Observed Temperature Changes: A New Dataset from 1850.” Journal of Geophysical Research 111 (2006).
  9. Brown, Casey, and Upmanu Lall.“Water and Economic Development: The Role of Variability and Framework for Resilience.” Natural Resources Forum 30, no. 4 (November 2006): 306–17
  10. Brundtland, Gro Harlem, ed. Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  11. Chapman, J. L., and M. J. Reiss. Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  12. Christensen,Villy, et al. “Hundred-Year Decline of North Atlantic Predatory Fishes.” Fish and Fisheries 4, no.1 (March 2003).
  13. Commoner, Barry.“The Environmental Cost of Economic Growth.” In Population, Resources and the Environment. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972, pp. 339–63.
  14. The Convention on Biological Diversity.
  15. Cox-Foster, Diana L., et al. “A Metaelgenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder.” Science 318 (October 12, 2007).
  16. Crutzen, Paul J., and Eugene F. Stoermer. “The ‘Anthropocene.’ ” International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Newsletter 41 (May 2000): 17–18.
  17. Dalgaard, Tommy. “Looking at Biofuels and Bioenergy.” Science 312 (June 23, 2006): 1743.
  18. The Economist, “Are You Being Served?” April 23, 2005;
  19. Giannini, A., R. Saravanan, and P. Chang. “Oceanic Forcing of Sahel Rainfall on Interannual to Interdecadal Timescales.” Science 302 (October 9, 2003): 1027–30.
  20. Hall-Spencer, Jason, et al.“Trawling Damage to the Northeast Atlantic Ancient Coral Reefs.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 269 (2002): 507–11.
  21. Hansen, James.“Climate Catastrophe.” New Scientist, July 28, 2007.
  22. Hansen, James, et al. “Climate Change and Trace Gases.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365 (May 2007): 1925–54.
  23. Hansen, James, et al. “Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate: a GISS ModelE Study.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2007): 2287–312.
  24. Hiro, Dilip. Blood of the Earth: The Battle for the World’s Vanishing Oil Resources. New York: Nation Books, 2006.
  25. Hopkin, Michael. “Oceans in Trouble as Acid Levels Rise.” Nature News, June 30, 2005.
  26. Hughes, T. P., et al.“Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs.” Science 301 (2003): 929.
  27. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: Fourth Assessment Report, 2007.
  28. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, 2006.
  29. International Conservation Union for Nature and Natural Resources. 2006 Red List of Threatened Species, 2006.
  30. International Energy Agency. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 1971–2000. Paris: OECD, 2007.
  31. International Food Policy Research Institute, Fish to 2020, Washington, 2003
  32. Jackson, Jeremy et al., “Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems.” Science Vol 293 27 July 2001.
  33. Jetz,Walter, Chris Carbone, Jenny Fulford, and James H. Brown.“The Scaling of Animal Space Use,” Science 306, no. 5694 (October 8, 2004): 266–68.
  34. Jolly, Alison. “The Last Great Apes?” Science no. 5740 (September 2, 2005): 1457.
  35. Keele, Brandon F., et al. “Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV.” Science 313, no. 5786 (July 28, 2006): 523–26.
  36. Keeling, Charles David, et al. “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variations at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii.” Tellus  28 (1976): 538.
  37. Kliesch, James, and Therese Langer. “Plug-in Hybrids: An Environmental and Economic Performance Outlook.” Report no. T061, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, September 2006.
  38. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  39. Lackner, Klaus, and Jeffrey D. Sachs. “A Robust Strategy for Sustainable Energy.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, issue 2 (2005).
  40. Lotze, H. K., et al. “Depletion, Degradation, and Recovery Potential of Estuaries and Coastal Seas,” Science 312 (June 23, 2006).
  41. McNeill, J. R. Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World. New York: Norton, 2006.
  42. Martin, P. S., and H. E. Wright, eds. Pleistocene Extinctions: The Search for a Cause. New Haven, Conn.:Yale University Press, 1967.
  43. Mendelson Joseph R., et al. III, “Biodiversity: Confronting Amphibian Declines and Extinctions.” Science 313, no. 5783 (July 7, 2006).
  44. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Island Press, 2005.
  45. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being, Synthesis Report. World Resources Institute, 2005.
  46. MIT Inter-Disciplinary Panel on Coal. The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2007.
  47. MIT Inter-Disciplinary Panel on Geothermal Energy. The Future of Geothermal Energy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2007.
  48. MIT Inter-Disciplinary Panel on Nuclear Power. The Future of Nuclear Power. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.
  49. Molina, Mario J., and F. S. Rowland.“Stratospheric Sink for Chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine Atom-Catalyzed Destruction of the Ozone.” Nature 249 (June 28, 2974): 810–12.
  50. Mora, Camilo.“Coral Reefs and the Global Network of Marine Protected Areas.” Science 312, no. 5781 (June 23, 2006): 1750–51.
  51. National Research Council, Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America. “Status of Pollinators in America.” 2007.
  52. Pacala, Steven, and Robert Socolow.“Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate with Current Technologies for the Next 50 Years.” Science 305, no. 5686 (August 13, 2004): 968–72.
  53. Pandolfi, John M., et al. “Global Trajectories of the Long-Term Decline of Coral Reef Ecosystems.” Science 301 (2003): 955.
  54. Pearce, Fred. When the Rivers Run Dry: Water: The Defining Crisis of the Twenty-First Century. Boston: Beacon Press, 2006.
  55. Pidwirny, M. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition. 2006.
  56. Pikitch, Ellen K., et al. “Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management.” Science 305, no. 5682 (July 16, 2004): 346–47.
  57. Pikitch, Ellen K., “The Gathering Wave of Ocean Extinctions,” State of the Wild 2006, pg 195-201.
  58. Pounds, J. Alan, et al.“Widespread Amphibian Extinctions from Epidemic Disease Driven by Global Warming.” Nature, January 12, 2006.
  59. Pritchett, “Divergence Big Time,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 11, No. 3, Summer 1997.
  60. Rasmusson, R., A. Dai, and K. E. Trenberth. “Impact of Climate Change on Precipitation.” In Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, ed., Large-Scale Disasters, Prediction, Control and Mitigation. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 453–72.
  61. Rockstrom, J., N. Hatibu, T. Oweis, S.Wani, J. Barron, A. Bruggeman, J. Farahani, L. Karlberg, and Z.Qiang. “Managing Water in Rainfed Agriculture.” Chapter 8 in D. Molden, ed., Water for Food, Water for Life, A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. London: EarthScan: International Water Management Institute, 2007.
  62. Rogner, H. H.“An Assessment of the World Hydrocarbon Resources.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 1997.
  63. Rosenzweig, Michael L.“Paradox of Enrichment: Destabilization of Exploitation Ecosystems in Ecological Time.” Science 171 (January 29, 1971): 385–87.
  64. Roughgarden, Jonathan, and Fraser Smith.“Why Fisheries Collapse and What to Do About It.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, volume 93 (May 1996): 5078–83.
  65. Roy, N. “The Atlantic Canada Resource Management Catastrophe: What Went Wrong and What Can We
  66. Royal Society Working Group on Ocean Acidification. Ocean Acidification Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. London: Royal Society, June 2005.
  67. Seager, Richard, et al. “Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America.” Science 316 (2007): 1181.
  68. Shah, Tushaaar. Water Policy Research Highlight: Groundwater and Human Development: Challenges and Opportunities in Livelihoods and Environment. Water Policy Program, 2005.
  69. Sitch, S., et al.“Indirect Radiative Forcing of Climate Change Through Ozone Effects on the Land-Carbon Sink.” Nature (August 16, 2007): 791–94.
  70. Stern, Nicholas. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  71. Stone, Richard.“Aquatic Ecology: The Last of the Leviathans.” Science 316 (June 22, 2007): 1684–88.
  72. Stuart, Simon, et al. “Status and Trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide.” Science 306 (December 3, 2004): 1783–86.
  73. Thomas, Chris D., et al. “Extinction Risk from Climate Change.” Nature 427 (January 8, 2004).
  74. Trewavas, Anthony.“Fertilizer: No-Till Farming Could Reduce Run-Off.” Nature 427 (January 8, 2004): 99.
  75. United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report 2006: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
  76. United Nations Environment Program. Sudan Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment, 2007.
  77. Vitousek, Peter M., et al.“Human Domination of Earth’s Ecosystems.” Science 277, no. 5325 (July 25, 1997): 494–99.
  78. Vogel, Gretchen. “Scientists Say Ebola Has Pushed Western Gorillas to the Brink.” Science 217, (September 14, 2007): 1484.
  79. Wilson, E. O. The Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth. New York: Norton, 2006.
  80. Wilson, E. O. The Future of Life. New York: Albert A. Knopf, 2002.
  81. Worm, Boris, et al.“Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services.” Science 314, no. 5800, (November 3, 2006): 787–90.
  82. Zhang, Xuebin, et al. “Detection of Human Influence on Twentieth-Century Precipitation Trends.” Nature 448 (July 27, 2006): 461.
  83. Zhu, Qiang. “The Rainwater Harvesting Projects in Mainland China.” International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association.